The pancreas is part of the gastrointestinal tract and at the same time is the mixed secretion gland. It responds to the entry of food into the human digestive system by producing enzymes that are secreted in the duodenum and aid in the breakdown of food in the intestine. On the other hand, the gland produces the hormones insulin and glucagon, which are released into the bloodstream and maintain normal blood glucose levels.
What is pancreatitis and its forms
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas, in which the gland tissue becomes inflamed, disrupting the production process and the entry of necessary enzymes into the intestine. The inflamed gland increases in size, its internal ducts narrow, which prevents digestive juices from passing into the duodenum. The enzymes that persist in the gland begin, as it were, to break down the gland itself, which leads to sad consequences.
There is an acute form of pancreatitis, which is provoked by a violation of the diet or by inflammatory diseases in the body and does not last long with proper treatment. If the action of irritating factors is prolonged or frequent, chronic pancreatitis occurs, which can develop after an acute process.
A comprehensive approach to the treatment of pancreatitis is used, and a special diet plays an important role, without which the effectiveness of treatment is extremely low.
Principles of the diet for pancreatitis
The principles of the diet for acute pancreatitis are that the first 3 days are generally recommended to observe hunger. During this period, the necessary nutrition is provided by intravenous infusion without intestinal irritation. Food entering the intestine always leads to an increase in the production of digestive enzymes, and in acute inflammation it is important to reduce this activity as much as possible, after a few days the diet is gradually expanded. At first, only ordinary water, sometimes mineral water is allowed without gas, preferably alkaline, weak tea.
So, for chronic pancreatitis from day 3 and for acute pancreatitis after day 5, the following provisions are used:
- the frequency of feeding at least 5 times a day for the uniform release of enzymes without a pronounced load and to reduce inflammation;
- the amount of fats and carbohydrates decreases as much as possible towards an increase in protein products;
- the volume of food at one time is not more than 150-200 ml;
- use hot food at 20-60 degrees, chopped or pureed;
- chew your food well and take your time;
- do not drink with meals, limit salt to 4-5 grams per day;
- excludes foods that cause flatulence;
- for the purpose of chemical saving, you should not use hot spices and seasonings;
- use only cooked or baked foods with no fried, smoked or canned ingredients.
Characteristics of the diet for pancreatitis
It is important to remember that the diet for pancreatic pancreatitis must be observed constantly, otherwise the body will react with repeated inflammation and the consequences will be negative. In acute pancreatitis, the condition is very serious and death is not excluded.
Against the background of an increase in the proportion of protein products in the diet, most of them should consist of animals in the form of turkey, chicken or young beef. Carbohydrates should be a little more than 300 grams per day with the restriction of ordinary sugar or jam, fat in a minimal amount, protein products make up more than half of the diet.
Allowed and prohibited foods in the diet for gastric pancreatitis
There are many foods allowed in the diet for gastric pancreatitis, so the diet can be varied as much as possible:
- boiled or baked rabbit, veal and poultry (lean), boiled tongue;
- lean fish such as hake or cod, boiled, baked or in the form of soufflé;
- cereals are different, preferably rice or oatmeal as part of cereals, soups or casseroles;
- bread after drying in the oven, baked goods with biscuits, baked pasta;
- diluted low-fat milk and lactic acid products in the form of an addition to the main products or casserole of curd, diet cheese and skimmed milk cottage cheese;
- boiled or baked vegetables - potatoes and squash, beets or carrots, fresh squash;
- eggs (protein only) in the form of omelettes or casseroles, vegetable oil in moderation;
- fruit, unsweetened ripe or baked, jelly or berry puree;
- weak drinks, diluted juices, rosehip fruit drinks.
The following foods are prohibited in a diet for exacerbated pancreatitis:
- fried or grilled meat, all offal; lamb or goose meat, bacon and smoked meat, canned stew;
- Marinated dishes in brine, rich fish broths or canned food;
- cooked dishes based on legumes and rich broths;
- fresh bread, pastries, fried cakes;
- natural fat sour cream, cream, large quantities of unsweetened milk;
- Garlic, mushrooms, radishes are strictly prohibited (limit turnips and fresh vegetables);
- egg yolks and fresh natural butter;
- lots of fresh sweet fruit, cabbage and sorrel;
- coffee, strong tea, concentrated lemonades and any carbonated drinks, alcohol of any strength or energy;
- ice cream, butter cream cakes, chocolate, any cake;
- hot spices, marinades, sausages and smoked meats.
Dietary contraindications for pancreatitis
Taking into account the peculiarities of the diet for gastric pancreatitis, there are contraindications.
Affect patients with kidney disease or protein metabolism:
- with pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis with process decompensation;
- patients with urolithiasis;
- in acute or chronic renal failure;
- in case of gout and disturbances of the basic metabolism of purines;
- in the presence of multiple myeloma;
- with hormonal imbalance or thyroid problems;
- with precancerous underlying diseases, since an excess of protein is dangerous for neoplasm;
- with severe obesity or diabetes mellitus, especially with diabetic nephropathy, i. e. kidney damage.
Due to the increase in the amount of protein products in the diet, the load on the kidneys increases, and in the presence of chronic diseases, their work is disrupted.
Diet for pancreatitis: menu of the week
Consider an example of a diet menu for a week in acute or chronic pancreatitis.
- Breakfast.Porridge in water from ground buckwheat, boiled chicken breast. Cottage cheese pudding, weak tea.
- Lunch.Fruit puree whipped in a blender, biscuits.
- Lunch.Rice groats puree soup, steamed veal cutlets, apricot jelly.
- Snack.Carrot casserole with tea.
- Dinner.Fish paste with oatmeal. Compote of apples.
- Before going to bed.Currant juice.
- Breakfast.Mashed potatoes with mashed beef. Biscuits, fruit tea.
- Lunch.Protein omelette, carrot puree.
- Lunch.Ground buckwheat soup with rabbit meatballs. Zucchini casserole, weak tea.
- Snack.Salad of mashed beets, fruit juice with breadcrumbs.
- Dinner.Steamed turkey cutlets with pureed rice porridge. Kissel from apples.
- Before going to bed.Rosehip fruit drink.
- Breakfast.Sugar-free oatmeal porridge. Carrot casserole with tea.
- Lunch.Baked apples with croutons and apricot juice.
- Lunch.Fish soup with hake, mashed potatoes with sour cream. Pear jelly with croutons.
- Snack.Zucchini casserole with tea and biscuits.
- Dinner.Steamed rabbit cutlets with buckwheat flour puree. Compote of currant.
- Before going to bed.A glass of kefir.
- Breakfast.Rice pudding with boiled beef. Tea with biscuits.
- Lunch.Boiled beetroot salad with yogurt and biscuits.
- Lunch.Soup on a weak chicken broth with buckwheat. Vegetable balls, fruit jelly.
- Snack.Cottage cheese with skimmed sour cream, tea with marshmallows.
- Dinner.Vegetable casserole with pollock. Compote of dried fruit.
- Before going to bed.Apple fruit drink.
- Breakfast.Chopped oatmeal porridge with steamed beef cutlets. Fruit pudding tea.
- Lunch.Steamed fish balls, apple jelly.
- Lunch.Rabbit soup with boiled meat. Pumpkin casserole with sour cream, unsweetened tea.
- Snack.Protein omelette with apple juice.
- Dinner.Roll with turkey meat and vegetable stew. Tea with biscuits.
- Before going to bed.Low-fat fermented cooked milk.
- Breakfast.Boiled pasta with chicken pate. Unsweetened tea.
- Lunch.Pumpkin porridge with unsweetened yogurt.
- Lunch.Pumpkin and veal puree soup. Courgette stew and cranberry jelly.
- Snack.Apple puree, a cup of kefir.
- Dinner.Steamed fish cakes with oatmeal. Tea with biscuits.
- Before going to bed.Compote of apricots.
- Breakfast.Casserole with beef and vegetables. Ryazhenka with cookies.
- Lunch.Ricotta pudding and fruit puree.
- Lunch.Pumpkin and potato puree soup. Chicken meatballs with oatmeal. Compote of fresh fruit.
- Snack.Carrot pudding with unsweetened tea.
- Dinner.Hake and zucchini casserole. Apple jelly.
- Before going to bed.Fresh baked milk.
When drafting menus and preparing food it is necessary to remember that the food must be fresh and that the preparation methods must be hot or baked. It is undesirable to combine several proteins at once, and small portions are recommended to reduce the load on the pancreas.
Diet for pancreatitis: reviews from nutritionists
Reviews of nutritionists about the diet for pancreatitis are as follows. Its main details are aimed at reducing the nutritional load on the gland and reducing the production of digestive juice, which supports inflammation. In addition to these effects, such a diet prevents diseases of the liver and biliary tract, as it normalizes the frequency of bile secretion in the intestine. However, against the background of restrictions, one should remember a sufficient amount of vitamins in the diet to avoid vitamin deficiency.
With the lack of own enzymes in the patient's body, the absorption of nutrients from food decreases. To correct the absorption of nutrients, drugs containing the necessary enzymes in granular or encapsulated forms are used. Special medicinal capsules promote the action of enzymes in a specific point of the digestive system for maximum effect.
In acute pancreatitis it is important to mince food as much as possible, but in chronic pancreatitis, to maintain the physiological work of the digestive tract, foods should not be finely chopped or wiped from ready-made foods, although heat treatment should be without fryingor grilling. The more balanced the diet, the less likely negative outcomes are. In acute pancreatitis, the diet must be followed for at least 2-3 months; in chronic disease, it is desirable for life.